Watersheds regulation Natural substrate for water conservation and management

شنبه ۱۴۰۰/۲/۱۱ - ۱۱:۲۸

Saturday:  May 1, 2021
Peasant weekly: Hashmatullah Habibi
The negative impressions of climate change have cut down the amount of annual rainfall in the country. In addition, the groundwater level has also been somewhat affected and lowered.
One of the factors of lowering and reducing of groundwater levels is the lack of an efficient mechanism to control rainfall water. The Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock(MAIL) regulates runoff every year to regulate runoff, which protects pastures, soil, and stabilizes flood damage, strengthens the water cycle and reforestation, and reduces drought. It has commenced 151 thousand hectares of watersheds in 25 provinces. In recent years, thousands of hectares of land and hills had been regulated with water for water management, which has upgraded yields, boosted the environment and managed groundwater.
What is watersheds?
The area of land that discharges surface water from highlands down the slope during rainfall is called watersheds. Watersheds regulation, useful executive measures to conserve water and soil and covering plant is called watershed regulation, which is considered with erosion, sedimentation, flooding and strengthening of groundwater resources, a watershed of water is formed from soil, rain, forest, mountain grass,  Hills and rivers.
Drainage by the heights to which the boundary line of the basin or the dividing line of water is enclosed, each basin has an outlet or focal point from which all water is discharged from the surface of the basin, the lowest point where rainwater from the surface of the basin It leads to this point. Inside the catchment area there is a central valley or a main river to which all the catchment water discharges to the valley. Each catchment is divided into several units from several sub-basins, and the smallest part of a catchment on which the drainage adjustment operation is performed is called unite. The catchment area consists of two parts, the upper and lower parts, the upper area includes mountain and hills, and the lower catchment area includes flat areas where rivers flow. Watersheds regulation is initially performed from the upper area to protect the lower catchment area from flood hazards, dam filling and sediments. Adjusting the upper drains over the lower ones is preferable because the lower basin is affected by the upper basin.
Where did watersheds start from?
Attention was paid to watersheds in North America in the early twentieth century. At that time, more emphasis was placed on regulating upper runoff with the goals of flood control, water quality and water production. It then expanded to developing countries, and in addition to the above goals of flood control, sedimentation and erosion, comprehensive management of watersheds regulation was added. Currently, due to urban development, population growth, shortage of drinking water due to droughts, lack of food and agricultural resources, regulation of the lower catchment area, is the issue of dams for electricity generation and modern irrigation system, road protection against Flood destruction.
The importance of watersheds in our country
Regulating of watersheds is very important for our country, since Afghanistan is an agricultural country and its economy depends on agricultural products and livestock, and eighty percent of our people daily income depends on natural resources. Watersheds regulation is effective against natural disasters. And it has increased agricultural, grassland, forestry and livestock production, which in turn has improved the living and economic situation and reduced the issue of migration and social challenges and issues.
Watershed regulation’s effects
The effects of  implementation of watersheds regulation can be summarized in providing employment, reducing crime and social problems caused by unemployment and migration to neighboring countries, increasing production in agriculture, forests, orchards, livestock, water and soil conservation and vegetation of natural resources, reducing Destructive floods, strengthening of groundwater and increasing the water of springs, canals and rivers, supply of agricultural and drinking water, reducing the effects of drought, creating conditions for wildlife and birds, improving the climate of the country and region.
Objectives of watersheds regulation
The implementation of watersheds regulation protects natural resources and on the other hand improves the living conditions of the residents. In addition, proper conservation and utilization of water and soil resources as two natural and main substrates for human life and sustainable development, prevention of water losses in the required areas and planning for water supply in the lower part of the catchment area, flood damage mitigation, control Wastewater and nourishment of groundwater reservoirs and help increase the discharge of canals, wells, springs and rivers, reduce the impact of watersheds against drought, prevent the transport of sediments to reservoirs of dams and irrigation networks, management and development of groundwater resources, including pastures, Grasslands, wetlands, groves and forests, improving the environmental conditions and improving the economic situation of the inhabitants of the watersheds, creating suitable conditions for the life of wildlife and birds, creating employment for the inhabitants of the watersheds in the executive, conservation and forest products and agricultural products. Improving the climatic conditions of the region is another goal of regulating runoff.
Steps of making watersheds
In order to implement the watersheds regulation program, preparing the main plan, collecting information, evaluating the challenges and obstacles, design, executive operations are necessary and explains its basis. Increasing groundwater by regulating and constructing water runoff.
Increasing groundwater is absorbed and stored in the ground by regulating and constructing water droplets from floods, rain and snow. This increases groundwater and prevents groundwater levels from falling. Afghanistan is one of the most effected countries to climate change and has suffered from problems such as drought and floods in this area,
In the regulation of watersheds, most of the watersheds is agricultural, forest and mountain runoff. The program of watersheds is implemented in those areas where the beneficiaries benefit it from.