Protocol for the Role of FOD

MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, IRRIGATION AND LIVESTOCK

HORTICULTURE AND LIVESTOCK PROJECT

 

Protocol for the Role of FOD

in relation to the activities of the horticulture and livestock components

 

 

Table of Contents

 

Abbreviations. 2

A       Introduction. 3

B       Objectives. 3

C       Methodology. 4

C-1.   Social and Economical Mobilization of Producer Groups. 5

C-2.   Selection of Farmer Trainers. 10

C-3.   Organization of Extension Services according to the Farmer Field School11

C-4.   Participation of DAIL Extension Staff in Extension Activities. 12

C-5.   Integrated Service Delivery to Producer Groups (2nd Mobilization Phase)14

C-6.   Regular Monthly Coordination Meetings of FOD, FPs and DAIL. 18

D       Monitoring of FPs and Performance of Producer Groups. 18

E       Guidelines for Savings, Inter-Loaning and Credit Components. 20

F        District Agricultural Services Provision System (DSAPS)21

Attachments. 22

1.        HLP Integrated Extension Service Model22

2.        TOR for FPs for 1st and 2nd Mobilization Phase. 23

3.        Job Description of FOD District Project Facilitators. 29

4.        Job Description of RoP Extension Workers. 31

5.        References Regarding the Mode of Operation of the FOD Component33

 

 

 

Abbreviations

AREDP

Afghanistan Rural Enterprise Development Program

ARTF

Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund

CDC

Community Development Council

DAIL

Department of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock

DASPS

District Agricultural Services Provision System

DFID

Department of International Development (UK)

EC

Extension Coordinator

ESSF

Environmental and Social Safeguard Framework

EW

Extension Worker

FFS

Farmer Field School

FOD

Farmer Organization Development

FP

Facilitating Partner

FT

Farmer Trainer

GM

Gender Mainstreaming

HFP

Horticulture Facilitating Partner

HIG

Horticulture Interest Group

HLP

Horticulture and Livestock Project

ICB

Institutional Capacity Building

M&E

Monitoring and Evaluation

MAIL

Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock

PASPS

Provincial Agricultural Services Provision System

SY

Solar Year

TOR

Terms of Reference

VFU

Veterinary Field Unit

WB

World Bank

 

 

A     Introduction

The Horticulture and Livestock Project (HLP) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock (MAIL) has been implementing its operations since the year 2006 financed by the World Bank, DFID and ARTF. The Project Development Objectiveof HLP is to assistproducer households in adopting improved practices so as to increase horticulture and livestock productivity and production in focus areas.FOD is supporting this by forming male and female producer groups in order to increase their self-help capacity, for organizing horticulture and livestock extension services, and common activities for the supply of production inputs, savings and credit and marketing services.

The target groups of HLP are those smallholder farm families who are engaged in horticulture or livestock, and or the one and the other. In all cases these households are engaged in the two sub-sectors with different intensities. But HLP holds it important that the project integrates these technical components and views the farming household in a holistic manner. Farm families are composed of male and female members. In both horticulture and livestock the male and female parts have their specific roles and responsibilities in the production and processing lines. Thus, HLP addresses male and female members of the households alike and provides supporting services to both. In the result; the gender balance is maintained and practically enforced.

The FOD component of HLP is facilitating the services which the horticulture and livestock components are delivering to the project beneficiaries. FOD also supports the other components of HLP in the field, as Institutional Capacity Building (ICB), Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) and the cross-cutting sections of Gender Mainstreaming and Environmental and Social Safeguard.

  • Objectives

The HLP Project Development Objective is:

To assist producer households in adopting improved practices so as to increase horticulture and livestock productivity and production in focus areas.

The Farmer Organization Development (FOD) is a sub-component of the Institutional Capacity Building efforts of HLP. In order to meet HLP’s development objectives, FOD aims

to organize the project beneficiaries into groups to enable them collectively address their common needs for extension services, quality inputs, credit and marketing services towards increasing productivity and income in a sustainable manner.

The Intermediate Outcomes have been determined as:

Village based producer organizations (male and female) established and strengthened in 11 focus districts (1st mobilization phase)

Indicators:

  1. Around 1032 male and female producer groups operating.
  2. At least 60 % of (or 619) producer groups achieving at least 50 % of their group action plan.

Male and female producer groups have an improved access to services in 5 selected focus districts (2nd mobilization phase)

Indicators:

  1. 40 % of the members of 300 male and female groups (120 groups) organized in 5 focus districts confirm having an improved access to the supply of production inputs.
  2. 20 % of 300 male and female groups organized in 5 focus districts confirm having an improved access to marketing services.

First Mobilization Phase

During the 1st mobilization phase, male and female producer groups are being formed and trained in organizational development. HLP is sub-contracting Facilitating Partners for delivering a training cycle of 10 modules to the groups. Afterwards the groups are being supported in the organization and management of extension services according to the principles of the farmer field school (FFS). The horticulture extension services are delivered by the horticulture facilitating partner (HFP). The livestock extension services are delivered by HLP employed staff only in the 5 focus districts, where groups get assisted through the 2nd mobilization phase.

Second Mobilization Phase

In the 2nd mobilization phase, 300 selected groups (male and female) in 5 focus districts get additionally assisted in the organization of integrated services, for the supply of production inputs, savings and credit and marketing. Facilitated Partners are providing intensive technical assistance and training for building up the self-help capacity of groups, group leaders and farmer trainers.

Developing linkages to public and private service providers (agricultural cooperatives and associations, nurseries, traders, microfinance agencies, banks, wholesale and exporting companies) and the mobilization of local savings through the development of collectively organized Savings Boxes would enable the groups to cover their common requirements by mutual help and cooperation.

This process is backed by FOD staff based at the DAIL district facilities. One male and one female FOD project facilitator in the above mentioned 5 focus districts are assisting the producer groups in organizing their common activities. At the same time, FOD staff is facilitating and coordinating the different efforts of HLP and FPs at district and village level, together with the district DAIL and local CDC structures. In a monthly coordination meeting convened by FOD, and mostly moderated by the DAIL director, all HLP activities are being monitored and work plans of FPs harmonized.

  • Methodology

HLP has been working in 11 provinces, 4 of them located in the Central Region, and 7 in the Northern Region. In each of the 11 provinces, one district was identified as a focus district, where FOD group formation and mobilization activities take place. The provinces and the respective focus districts are shown in table 1, which indicates also the FPs working in the FOD mobilization and training process, and the number of male and female producer groups formed and trained by spring 2011.

 

Table 1: Producer Groups in Focus Districts

HLP Focus Districts

FP

Producer Groups

 

Province

District

Male

Female

Total

Central Region

 

 

 

 

1

Kabul

Mir Bacha Kot

SDO/GPFA

75

68

143

2

Kapisa

Mahmood Raqi

SDO/GPFA

24

16

40

3

Panjsher

Bazarak

SDO

25

25

50

4

Parwan

Sheikh Ali

SDO/GPFA

50

40

90

Northern Region

 

 

 

 

5

Baghlan

Pul-e-Khumri

-

0

0

0

6

Samangan

Ayback

Afghanaid

49

40

89

7

Balkh

Khulm

Hand in Hand

75

65

140

8

Jawzjan

Sheberghan

ZOA

48

42

90

9

Sar-e-Pul

Sozma Qala

ZOA

25

15

40

10

Kunduz

Imam Sahib

-

0

0

0

11

Takhar

Farkhar

ACTED

50

50

100

     

Total

421

361

782

 

A total of 782 producer groups were mobilized, 46% being female. After having gone through the group mobilization process, all these groups get assisted by providing horticulture extension services according to the principles of the FFS, organized by the HFP. Due to security restrictions group formation and mobilization was only implemented in 9 of the 11 focus districts. Pul-e-Khumri and Imam Sahib have not been accessible because of ongoing clashes between armed opposition groups and national and international military forces.

Additionally to the provision of the FFS extension services, the groups are trained by FPs in the organization and management of common activities for the supply of production inputs, savings and credit and marketing services. The development of collectively organized Savings Boxes is of special importance for women groups, getting access to finance according to Islamic rules. To strengthen local and district based institutions, both public and private, would contribute to build up social capital and to open the access of small and medium producers to markets by increasing their bargaining power.

FOD project facilitators, in close cooperation with the district DAIL and local CDC structures are supporting this process and facilitating all activities of the different HLP components and FPs at district level. Monthly coordination meetings are convened for harmonize the horticulture and livestock extension services, provided by both HLP staff and the FPs. FOD is also facilitating and supporting the DASPS development at district level, and facilitating the M&E outcome, process and geo-location monitoring.

C-1.      Social and Economical Mobilization of Producer Groups

HLP is working with producer groups, male and female alike. Each group is composed of 25 members (average), which decide about their leadership and sharing of specific responsibilities. These producer groups become the drivers and managers of their own development. HLP is assisting them to form their groups around their common interest of horticulture and livestock production.

The social structure of the HLP target group was analyzed by the Baseline Survey 2008-09, and updated by the Annual Outcome Monitoring and the specific case studies to be developed by the HLP M&E section as well. Table 2 is providing a spot on the ownership of orchards, and indicating the social structure of the members of producer groups in the 5 main focus districts of HLP. Farmers own orchards from 0.5 up to 100 jeribs, on average 1.7 to 4.7 jeribs. Though the project target group is smallholders, it is important to include also medium and bigger farmers into the group activities. For the introduction and adoption of new and improved practices by the FFS, the medium and bigger farmers taker over a lead function in the groups. Also for the joint provision of services, the smallholders can benefit from the better market access of medium and bigger farmers.

 

Table 2: Size of Orchards of Farm Households in Focus Districts

No.

Province

Focus District (Clusters)

Size of Orchards (jeribs)

Variance

Average

1.1

Kabul

Mirbachakot 1

0.5 - 20

2.4

1.2

Mirbachakot 2

0.5 - 50

3.3

1.3

Mirbachakot 3

0 - 28

2.6

2.1

Kapisa

Mahmood Raqi

1 - 14

2.3

3.1

Samangan

Aybak 1

0.5 - 40

3.4

3.2

Aybak 2

0.5 - 40

2.4

4.1

Balkh

Khulm 1

n.a.

n.a.

4.2

Khulm 2

1 - 12

2.1

4.3

Khulm 3

1 - 12

2.2

5.1

Jawzjan

Sheberghan 1

0 - 10

1.7

5.2

Sheberghan 2

0 - 100

4.7

 

The group members are active in the Community Development Councils (CDCs) of their villages, which care for general community development issues. Most of the group members have also joined the local and district farmer organizations, as Agricultural Cooperatives, Producer Associations and Savings and Credit Cooperatives.

Organizing rural women into groups have a considerable impact on the improvement of farm income and livelihood. In this way, HLP addresses to the entire farming household for achieving most of synergies. Male groups are mainly dealing with orchard management, irrigation and the supply of inputs, credit and marketing. Female groups work with poultry, cattle and small ruminants, assist in orchards and agricultural activities and are involved in food preparation, conservation and processing. Male and female groups are also dealing with small businesses and stimulate local savings through the establishment of savings boxes.

This process has shown results in terms of building social capital, increasing social cohesion, increased capacity for self help and self management. The groups have developed basic skills of planning and management. However the groups require more mobilization support and facilitation to participate actively in implementation and management of the extension and technology adoption for horticulture and livestock programs through the network of farmer field schools.

HLP on behalf of MAIL has been contracting Facilitating Partners through an open competition, based on general Terms of Reference and the World Bank procurement procedures. The selected Facilitating Partner (FP) starts the group formation process by addressing to the previous lead farmers and the Community Development Councils (CDC), the local Departments of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock (DAIL) and local cooperatives as well. Eligible farmers are going to be identified by applying specific physical and social selection criteria as such:

  • Availability of orchard, sufficient water supply, fruit and nut should be suitable to the area, site accessible by road.
  • Farmers willing to cooperate and to adopt and adapt key technical practices.
  • Project beneficiaries representing the social structure of the community, giving priority to the small and medium farmers.

The FP implements a training program of 10 modules in the community. The first module invites the community to a role play (river code) which focuses on the importance of mutual self-help and the formation and social mobilization of producer groups. It is desirable that during this first meeting the horticulture and livestock extension workers attend for getting acquainted with the community and the group formation process. This requires that for the assistance of each producer group a specific horticulture extension worker is assigned, who is developing the farmer field school activities together with the group during the whole season.

During the second module, the male producer groups are going to be formed. Afterwards, men discuss and agree upon the formation of female groups, according to the tradition and culture in the community, and considering the important and valuable contributions of women for the household income and sustainment. The group members are selected according to the criteria of eligibility, and the group leaders (chair person, treasurer, secretary) are going to be identified and democratically elected. Of specific importance are the appointments of the farmer trainers for both horticulture and livestock issues, who assist group members in the implementation of extension messages for their adoption and adaption of the improved technical practices. Therefore, the presence of the extension workers in this second training module is absolutely compulsory.

In total, 10 training modules are being carried through with each producer group. After concluding the training cycle provided by the FP, the groups continue working with the horticulture and livestock extension workers. The group formation and mobilization process and the different steps to be taken are summarized in table 3.

 

Table 3: Procedure of the Group Formation and Mobilization Process

Steps

Designation

Actors

1

Addressing to Lead Farmers, Shuras and CDCs; invitation to a community meeting for informing about the program and the criteria of eligibility

Community leaders, farmers

FOD / FP trainer

 

2

1st training module: Mobilization for Self-Reliant Self-Help Actions - “The River Code”

  • Information about HLP
  • Awareness about the advantages of being more self-reliant

Eligible and interested farmers

FOD / FP trainer

 

3

2nd training module: Formation of Producer Groups

  • Election of group leaders: Chairperson, Secretary, Treasurer
  • Assignment of Farmer Trainers for both horticulture and livestock
  • Agreement on forming a separate female producer group

Members of newly formed male producer group

FOD / FP trainer

Horticulture extension worker

Livestock extension worker (only in selected focus districts)

4

1st training module: Mobilization for Self-Reliant Self-Help Actions - “The River Code”

  • Information about HLP
  • Awareness about the advantages of being more self-reliant

Women belonging to the households of the members of the male producer groups

and

female headed households

FOD / FP trainer

5

2nd training module: Formation of Producer Groups

  • Election of group leaders: Chairperson, Secretary, Treasurer
  • Assignment of Farmer Trainers for both horticulture and livestock

Members of newly formed female producer group

FOD / FP trainer

Horticulture extension worker

Livestock extension worker (only in selected focus districts)

6

Having formed male and female producer groups focusing on the farm household and farmer trainers for both horticulture and livestock assigned

  • Further training program to be developed together with male and female groups
  • Extension workers start with provision of extension services to the groups according to the principles of the FFS

Male and female producer groups

FOD / FP trainers

Horticulture extension workers

Livestock extension workers (only in selected focus districts)

7

3rd training module: Identification of Priority Needs and Appropriate Self-Help Actions

  • Weaknesses and shortcomings in the horticulture and livestock production
  • Options for improvement and the appropriate self-help actions

Male and female producer groups

FOD / FP trainers

 

8

4th training module: Savings and Financial Management

  • Management of saving box and revolving fund, internal lending and book keeping
  • Options how the group can get prepared for qualifying for group credit schemes

Male and female producer groups

FOD / FP trainers

 

9

5th training module: Supply of Agricultural Inputs

  • increased access to good quality inputs and services at a reasonable cost to the members
  • benefits of building linkages with input suppliers like Ag-depots, Cooperatives, Veterinary Clinics and Veterinary Field Units

Male and female producer groups

FOD / FP trainers

 

10

6th training module: Post Harvest Activities and Marketing of Agricultural Produce

  • production according to market requirements / demands: quality, quantity, time
  • importance of reducing post harvest losses (appropriate storage)
  • transaction costs and the role of traders

Male and female producer groups

FOD / FP trainers

 

11

7th training module: Development of a Group Action Plan “Annual Calendar”

  • determined the activities which need to be done during each month of the year
  • determined which activities they as a group or community will do as self-help activities
  • determined which kind of external assistance they need for which improvement

Male and female producer groups

FOD / FP trainers

Horticulture extension workers

Livestock extension workers (only in selected focus districts)

12

8th training module: Principles of Farmer Field School (FFS)

  • Concept of Experiential Learning
  • FFS as an extension service approach; strengthening of knowledge and skills
  • Organization and management of FFS on village and district level

Male and female producer groups

FOD / FP trainers

Horticulture extension workers

Livestock extension workers (only in selected focus districts)

13

9th training module: HLP Services for Producer Groups

  • information on the technical assistance and training activities in horticulture and livestock provided by HLP (extension service)
  • information on the service packages in horticulture (new orchards, rehabilitation of existing orchards, other) provided by HLP and criteria of eligibility,
  • information on the services accessible in livestock (poultry program, extension and veterinary services) provided by HLP and criteria of eligibility

Male and female producer groups

FOD / FP trainers

Horticulture extension workers

Livestock extension workers (only in selected focus districts)

14

10th training module: Organization and Management of the Farmer Field School – the Way Forward

  • further clarified the role and responsibilities among group members (executive committee, other volunteers i.e. farmer trainer etc.)
  • been prepared and organized their active participation at the Farmer Field School, both in horticulture and livestock issues, in close cooperation with the HLP extension service
  • clarified how they interact with other organizations such as CDCs and local development organizations (DAIL agricultural directorate, agricultural cooperatives and associations)

Male and female producer groups

FOD / FP trainers

Horticulture extension workers

Livestock extension workers (only in selected focus districts)

15

“Hand over” of producer groups from FOD to the HLP horticulture and livestock components

FOD / FP trainers

HFP extension workers

Livestock extension workers

DAIL district agricultural director and extension staff

 

C-2.      Selection of Farmer Trainers

HLP is in the process of applying a participatory extension and technology dissemination approach using farmer field schools. This involves farmer trainers from every producer group in order to participate in a farmer field school and to get trained in key technologies and practices related to the key tree and field crops in case of horticulture and similarly in the livestock sector. These farmer trainers are expected to become farmer extensionists and support experimentation and extension of the recommended practices for the farmers who are members of the producer group in their own fields.

The producer group is expected to take an important role in deepening, management and monitoring of the extension efforts at the group level and ensure that both extension worker and farmer trainer deliver extension services at the village level. The producer group is also expected to provide feedback to extension workers on the issues faced by the farmers in adoption of practices. This mobilization effort would lead to an increased participation of the members of the producer groups in extension and experimentation of the recommended practices.

Criteria for the Farmer Trainer (FT) – who has to

  • live and stay in the village during the week (as he should prepare and attend the FFS meetings, which are organized during the week),
  • be the owner on the orchard / vineyard and thus able to make decisions, e.g., regarding pruning (not a share-cropper who only irrigates),
  • be literate as FFS also considers economical issues (record keeping),
  • be experienced in orchard / vineyard management,
  • be interested to learn and try new technologies,
  • be respected in the community as an example for others to follow.

Criteria for the orchard / vineyard of the FT – who has to

  • be close to the village so that farmers carry through the FFS meetings at this site,
  • be young or middle-aged (not more than 20 years), so that the potential of the orchard / vineyard can be developed and productivity can be increased,
  • have a variety of two and more crops as it should be used for training purposes,
  • have reliable access to irrigation water,
  • nothave the perfect orchard / vineyard with no salt in the ground, perfect spacing of the trees, soil mulched and with no pests and diseases, in order to use it for demonstrating improvements.

For the livestock activities, the farmer trainer provides the facilities (cow shed, poultry coop, site for fodder production and storage, etc.) for carrying through the extension activities according to the principles of the farmer field school.

The farmer trainers should be elected amongst the group members and should be committed to organize and prepare the extension activities conducted by the extension workers. His responsibilities comprise:

  • Provide facilities for developing the demonstration activities of the Farmer Field School (orchard/vineyard for horticulture; shed/coop for livestock).
  • Record and disseminate the observations made and achieved results of the demonstration and extension activities.
  • Train the group members on the application of the improved practices and promote their adoption by them.

Each male and female producer group appoints 1 farmer trainer for horticulture and 1 farmer trainer for livestock. Although the demonstration sites provided by the farmers trainers are in the focus of the jointly implemented measures, the farms of the group members play an important role for the dissemination of the extension messages and thus for the adoption of the intended improved practices.

C-3.      Organization of Extension Services according to the Farmer Field School

Based on the prioritization of their basic needs, the groups identify which problems they are able to solve by themselves either individually or by group effort, and for the solution of problems they need external assistance. The results of this analysis enter into a group action plan which determines the activities of the group during the whole agricultural season. Following the vegetative period and livestock production cycle, the main activities on farm and group level, and the required interventions of the extension workers as well, are considered in the group action plan. Due to the importance of the group planning and implementation process, the presence of the extension worker is compulsory.

The FFS approach represents a radical departure from earlier agriculture extension programs, in which farmers were expected to adopt generalized recommendations that had been formulated by specialists from outside the community. In this regard, the role of the extension worker changes from teaching towards facilitation. The frequency of the visits of the extension worker depends on the necessities of the specific crops and the agreements made with the group:

  • First, the extension worker assists in developing the group action plan and agrees upon his contribution to the regular group meetings.
  • Secondly, the extension worker is prepared to work with the group with at least three key technical practices, which should be adopted. 
  • Third, according to the conditions of the season, the extension worker agrees to participate regularly in the group meetings. His presence is mandatory when the improved practices are applied.
  • Fourth, the farmer trainers organize the FFS meetings and call the extension worker to be present in the group meetings. The extension worker assists and trains the farmer trainers in the FFS management and documentation of the activities and results.

As it was mentioned, extension workers for both horticulture and livestock activities have been assigned to each producer group. In horticulture, the group meetings are organized bi-weekly with the male groups and monthly with the women groups during the whole season. Following the peculiarities of each crop, the schedule of these meetings is determined by the vegetative period. Extension workers, farmer trainers and all group members need to develop the appropriate method for implementing the main elements of the farmer field school, which consist in the observation, experimentation, documentation, dissemination, adaption and adoption of the improved practices.

In livestock, the extension services are provided to the producer groups in the 5 focus districts, where FOD is present with staff and FPs assisting the groups in the 2nd mobilization phase. The extension workers meet each producer group every month for delivering extension messages as per the seasonal calendar.

In order to assist the female groups with the same frequency of interactions like the male groups, the numbers of female extension workers need to be increased. Due to the disadvantages which girls and young women suffer in their formal education, female extension workers and farmer trainers need additional and specific vocational training for compensating the deficiencies of the formal education.

At district level, the meeting and visiting schedules of the different HLP services are being coordinated and harmonized. The aim is to agree with each group on a fixed week-day, when the groups meet and the extension workers and FPs are delivering the FFS and training activities. Table 4 (on next page) is showing a template for the meeting and visit schedule at district level, which integrates the weekly interventions of horticulture, livestock and FOD at group level.

C-4.      Participation of DAIL Extension Staff in Extension Activities

In order to increase the sustainability of the extension efforts, local government extension staff is invited to join the project activities. HLP provides the opportunity to take the government staff along with the extension workers in the field, interacting with producer groups and farmer trainers, and making their knowledge and skills available for the development of the rural communities. This includes both the development of extension messages according to the seasonal calendar of specific crops and livestock cycles and the participative implementation of the messages through the farmer field school methodology.

In this way, the applied extension methodology will be widely disseminated and the district agricultural department (DAIL) staff gets first hand trained in their duties. On the other hand DAIL regularly lacks funds and transport means for the implementation of any activities. It will be necessary to providing allowances and transport facilities to the DAIL extension workers equal to HLP/FP staff. Furthermore, DAIL extension staffs need to be included into the regular HLP training programs.

 

Table 4: Meeting and Visiting Schedule at Group Level (Template)

District

Mirbacha Kot

Month

June 2011

                                     

Village

Subgroup in village

Farmer Trainer

Training provided by

Person in charge

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15 - 27

28

29

30

Day of the week

W

T

F

S

S

M

T

W

T

F

S

S

M

T

 

T

W

T

Qala-e Malak

1

Ami-nullah

HLP, LS

 Mahmood

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thursday

RoP, HC

Habibullah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FOD

 GPFA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RoP, HC

Habibullah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kharoti

1

Haji Zafar

HLP, LS

 Mahmood

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saturday

RoP, HC

Habibullah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FOD

 GPFA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RoP, HC

Habibullah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Mokhtar

HLP, LS

 Mahmood

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sunday

RoP, HC

Habibullah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FOD

 GPFA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RoP, HC

Habibullah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Issues to be considered:
bazaar days in which FFSs should not take place…. Suggestion that on those days the EWs stay in the office to prepare reports, attend the monthly coordination meeting, attend the PC-to-EWs workshop and check new and old orchards / vineyards
Bazaar day in MBK on Tuesday -  no FFSs will be implemented

 

 

C-5.      Integrated Service Delivery to Producer Groups (2nd Mobilization Phase)

Organizing farmers into groups means organizing common activities. First, male and female group members, learn to speak and to listen to each other in a structured way and to sharing responsibilities. Carrying through common activities require commitment, reliability and responsibility of each of the group members, and delegation of responsibilities to the group leaders. Criteria of trust in each other, reputation for honesty and cooperative personality of the group leaders are important factors in the group building process.

First, the groups need to increase their social cohesion and communication, for being able to agree upon common action plans throughout the agricultural year. This includes regular meetings for developing Farmer Field Schools, and analyzing advantages and disadvantages of group actions for the supply of production inputs and marketing. Groups learn to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of taking credit offered by several microfinance institutions and banks. Groups also learn to mobilize savings for financing common needs and to provide small loans to each other. 

Second, the groups start to organize common activities by purchasing production inputs, applying for loans at microfinance institutions or banks, and jointly offer their produce to the provincial and national traders. Farmers increase their negotiation power by offering their products in a bigger quantity and quality. Sorting and grading can be organized at the farm or village level, using original brand packaging materials ready for the wholesale market and export. Both farmers and traders benefit by the direct negotiations. Transport costs decrease and through bypassing potential intermediaries better profit margins can be achieved.

The next step of cooperation is the transformation of the informal producer groups to formal and officially registered farmer organizations. In 2008, a new cooperative law was promulgated, which provides the framework for agricultural cooperatives and rural savings- and credit cooperatives as well. A considerable number of agricultural cooperatives are registered in Afghanistan, but most of them are not active, or depend on some benefits from the government and other organizations. The modern concept of cooperatives as efficient and effective service providers is different. Cooperatives act as independent and self managed business units and rely on the active participation of their members.

Producer associations are non profit and also profit oriented sector organizations, for setting technical standards, promoting their products in the national and international markets, advocating for the improvement of the legal framework, and lobbying. These types of associations operate on district, provincial and national level.

Organization of Integrated Services

Additionally to the facilitation of the extension services according to the principles of the farmer field school, FOD is working with selected groups in 5 focus districts to develop intensive models for community management for the last mile service delivery including:

  • input supply and management,
  • savings and credit services and
  • marketing services

This includes building linkages with district extension services, input suppliers, like Ag-depots and functional cooperatives, VFUs in case of livestock, traders and other commercial organizations, microfinance agencies and other rural finance organizations. In a later stage, producer groups may become federated for achieving economies of scale in delivering services and aggregating demand for services, inputs, credit and commodities (mid-term goal: setting up of Farmer Service Centers).

Selected groups in 5 of the 11 focus districts are getting assisted by the 2nd mobilization phase. The respective districts, producer groups and FPs involved are mentioned in table 5.

Table 5: Group Mobilization 2nd Phase in 5 Focus Districts

Nr

Focus Districts

FP

Male

Female

Total

Central Region

 

 

 

 

1

Mir Bacha Kot

GPFA

50

43

93

2

Mahmood Raqi

GPFA

24

16

40

Northern Region

 

 

 

0

5

Ayback

Afghanaid

25

15

40

6

Khulm

Hand in Hand

50

40

90

7

Sheberghan

ZOA

25

15

40

 

Total Groups

 

173

129

303

 

MAIL through HLP has been contracting facilitating partners who are providing technical assistance and training to the selected producer groups. The expected outcomes are as follows:

  • Farmer organizations are enabled to develop an integrated one stop service delivery to members.
  • Farm households have an increased access to good quality inputs and services at a reasonable cost.
  • Members of producer groups get better prices for their produce.
  • Public and private agencies are enabled to provide services to farmers with decreased transaction costs and increased effectiveness.

FOD has prepared a manual to be used by the FP trainer teams for the delivery of the technical assistance and training during the 2nd mobilization phase.The contents are outlined in table 6.

Table 6: Training Modules of the 2nd Mobilization Phase

Modules

Designation

Actors

1

Participatory Self-Assessment of Group Performance

  • Having a clear understanding of the group needs in terms of horticulture and livestock.
  • Having reviewed the role and functions of the group leadership (chairperson, secretary and treasurer) and having re-defined its responsibilities.
  • Having reviewed the role and functions of the farmer trainers for both horticulture and livestock.
  • Having analyzed the implementation of the group action plan and the importance of such planning for organizing the group activities.

FOD / FP

M&E

2

Development and Update of the Group Action Plan

Determined the activities which need to be done during each month of the year

  • for horticulture
  • for livestock
  • for getting the kind of services needed for the proper accomplishment of the planned activities

FOD / FP

Horticulture extension workers

Livestock extension workers (only in selected focus districts)

3

Organization and Management of FFS Activities

  • Established the modality of working together according to the farmer field school principles.
  • Agreed with the farmer trainers to using their facilities (orchards, coops, farm houses) for meetings and demonstration activities.
  • Agreed on being exposed to at least three key technical practices both in horticulture and livestock.

FOD / FP

Horticulture extension workers

Livestock extension workers (only in selected focus districts)

4

Specific Skills Training for Group Leaders, Office Bearers and Farmer Trainers

  • Group leaders know and apply improved techniques on group management and planning
  • Farmer trainers and group leaders keep records of FFS observations and conclusions
  • Office bearers know and apply basic book keeping and calculation

FOD / FP

 

5

Supply of Production Inputs: Facilitation of Group Actions

  • learned on the different steps how to agree upon and to organize common actions for the purchase of production inputs,
  • learned on how to identify the proper products according to the required ingredients and to discard faked, inactive and outdated products

FOD / FP

 

6

Microfinance I: Assistance for the Development and Consolidation of Savings Boxes

Learned on the purpose of savings boxes for

  • providing small and short-term loans for group members
  • financing common activities, e.g. the purchase of production and veterinary inputs
  • providing financial assistance in case of emergency situations of group members

 

FOD / FP

 

7

Microfinance II: Facilitation of Bank Loans

  • Learned on the conditions of banks and microfinance institutions, which offer seasonal and investment credit
  • Learned how to address the institutions and apply for individual loans

FOD / FP

 

8

Marketing I: Facilitation of Group Actions

  1. Learned on how to forecast the harvest and to develop marketing plans
  2. Learned on how to get reliable and updated information about markets, volumes and prices
  3. Learned on the quality requirements of the markets regarding sorting, grading and packaging

FOD / FP

 

9

Marketing II: Facilitation of Market Linkages

  • Decided on contacting traders and wholesalers on provincial and national level for offering their products
  • Discussed the marketable quantity as well as the quality of their crops and the possibilities of sorting, grading and packaging at farm, village and district level

FOD / FP

 

10

Federated Structures: Farmer Organizations on Village, District and Provincial Level

  • Understood the importance of the mutual cooperation of producer groups on village and district level
  • Assessed the possibilities of organizing the needed services through the local agricultural cooperatives
  • Discussed the need for organizing producer groups into district and regional associations for advocacy and for developing common standards of a specific crop on district level

FOD / FP

 

 

The above outlined process is supported by FOD staff (1 male, 1 female) in each of the mentioned 5 focus districts. Their role is the following:

  • Facilitate extension meetings according to the principles of the farmer field school, together with the FP in charge of the HLP extension service.
  • Facilitate the coordination of the different FPs’ activities on district level.
  • Develop linkages between producer groups, HLP-FPs and other service providers.
  • Develop linkages between producer groups and district and provincial administrations.
  • Facilitate ongoing activities as group formation, mobilization, and organizational development.
  • Facilitate the self-assessment of producer groups, and assist them to identify their needs and to find appropriate solutions.
  • Support local governments and other stakeholders in the planning and implementing of community development issues.

FOD staff and FPs are sharing the efforts for the integrated services delivery. The regular visiting schedule is one meeting per month for each of them, the FOD staff on supporting the collective group actions, and the FPs providing assistance and training for increasing the self-help capacity of the producer groups. Both, FPs and FOD staff cooperate in collecting data for the verification of performance indicators (see separate chapter below).

C-6.      Regular Monthly Coordination Meetings of FOD, FPs and DAIL

At the last week of each month FOD staff in 5 focus districts convene a regular coordination meeting, inviting all FPs for the provision of horticulture and livestock extension services and the poultry program, the delivery of FOD integrated services and the DAIL extension staff. The standard agenda of this meeting contains:

  • Reports about the implementation of the last month’s agreements
  • Coordination of work plans of the following month of HLP extension workers for both horticulture and livestock, FOD and DAIL extension staff
  • Agreements made upon:
  • group visiting schedules planned for the bi-weekly visits of male and female producer groups by extension workers,
  • visiting schedules planned for FOD - FPs (monthly visit) and
  • visiting schedules planned for the facilitation of services delivery (monthly visit by FOD staff)

Having established this practice since half a year, the DAIL district officials are often chairing the meetings. Afterwards FOD prepares the minutes of meeting and distributes it to the participants.

 

  • Monitoring of FPs and Performance of Producer Groups

By concluding contracts with FPs, a systematized reporting scheme is in place. FPs report monthly about the activities developed and the work plans for the following month. FOD national, regional and district staff are verifying the reported activities in the field. These reports are used for the monitoring of the deliverables agreed upon in the service contract. The monitoring of the FP activities is outlined in table 7.

Table 7: Monitoring of Activities of FPs

Steps

Activity

Modality

1

Inception Report

Report after one month of starting the project implementation

2

Monthly Reports from the FPs

Regular reports according to the contractual obligations

3

Producer Group Data Sheet

Maintenance of FOD Data Base

4

Analysis of Priorities of Needs

Report as basis for the development of the group action plan

5

Group Action Plan

Report as planning of FFS and provision of services

6

Quarterly Assessment of Group Performance

Report on verification of performance indicators

7

Intermediate and Final Evaluation

Workshops with FP teams of trainers

Additionally, the situation of each group is quarterly assessed by gathering information for verifying the main indicators of the HLP Result Framework and the Performance Indicators agreed upon after the World Bank supervision mission in March 2010. The data is available for each of the 5 districts where FOD staff is based, and for each contracted FP as well, and is managed in cooperation with the M&E component of HLP. This is to monitor the performance of the groups, the FPs and the overall FOD component. The group performance indicators are shown in table 8.

Table 8: FOD Group Performance Indicators

1

Number of Farmer Trainers

2

  1. Number of Farmer Field Schools (FFS) Organized
  2. Percentage of group members attending FFS

3

Percentage of farmers in the group exposed to the three key technical practices

4

Percentage of farmers in groups adopting recommended practices

5

  1. Total amount of savings
  2. Savings per group

6

  1. Amount of inter-loaning and credit mobilized
  2. Percentage of group mobilizing credit

7

Percentage of groups undertaking collective activities

The results, conclusions and lessons learnt are periodically summarized in the FOD Monthly and Quarterly Reports. The Quarterly Progress Report contains the verification of the group performance indicators based on the 303 groups assisted in the 2nd mobilization phase in 5 focus districts.

  • Guidelines for Savings, Inter-Loaning and Credit Components

Access to finances is crucial for investment and adoption of new technologies in horticulture and livestock farming. At the current stage, formal credit is not available for the big majority of the farmers. Generally farmers are not eligible for any commercial credit due to the lack of collateral and the high risk of the investment. On the other hand farmers expect credit without any interest payments according to the Islamic rule.

International donors financed banks and agencies provide some credit facilities to specific target groups, while in the rural areas there is no financial infrastructure for providing financial services and for financing investments and seasonal credit in the agricultural sector.

In this situation, local savings groups, called “Savings Boxes”, play an important role for mobilizing local savings for investing into viable economic activities. HLP has been supporting savings boxes, which arise from the middle of the mobilized producer groups. The group members agree on regular monthly payments and jointly decide how to use the collected money. The main purpose of the savings are spent for financing common group activities in horticulture and livestock and craft activities, e.g. preservation of fruits by female groups. The groups have also started with inter-loaning by giving small and short-term loans to members without interest, and provide financial support to group members in need.

Savings Boxes are informal organizations. This allows them to collect savings at group level and to use the deposited funds without state interference and control. In this way the groups administer the collective funds and are autonomous in their decisions. On the other hand, the scope of activities remains very limited and is bound to the available funds, and the groups are on risk of losses by negligence or theft. This informality also prevents banks and micro-finance agencies dealing with the groups, e.g. lending to the groups on the basis of mutual liability. Nevertheless, in some cases groups have learned to address to financial service providers and to get loans on an individual basis. table 9 indicates the number of male and female savings boxes established by the producer groups in the 5 FOD focus districts. Of a total of 503 groups, 371 are maintaining Savings Boxes with a total of 9002 members. The total savings have been 1,931,059 AFN (42,900 USD)

Table 9: Savings Boxes in Focus Districts

District / Groups

Groups

Group Members

Male

Female

Male

Female

Mir Bacha Kot

           22  

           36  

             675  

             925  

Mahmud Raqi

           16  

           16  

             389  

             285  

Aybak

           42  

           38  

             944  

             921  

Khulm

           59  

           63  

          1.446  

          1.438  

Sheberghan

           38  

           41  

             925  

          1.054  

Total

         177  

         194  

          4.379  

          4.623  

HLP has developed coarse statutes for structuring and regulating the groups’ operations. These statutes refer to the eligibility of the members and their rights and duties, general rules for savings and expenditures (how to use the funds for different purposes: production, loans, emergency aid), and rules for the repayment and safeguard of the funds. All operations of savings and lending are held in public during the group meetings. Each group member holds a passbook, which indicates the individual share, and the total operations are recorded in the group ledger.

The World Bank financed “Afghanistan Rural Enterprise Development Program” AREDP plans to develop formal Village Savings and Loan Associations. These associations would formally register and apply for a license of the Central Bank for keeping savings deposits. The village associations would be supported by the program with grants which would increase their abilities for providing loans at local level. HLP will cooperate with the AREDP in the district of Khulm, Balkh province, where both programs are going to develop their activities. It is planned to achieve a specific Memorandum of Understanding between the two programs, in order to benefit the groups supported by HLP with a matching grant in relation to the group savings and observe the impact through AREDP.

  • District Agricultural Services Provision System (DSAPS)

FOD is supporting the efforts for assisting the district government and DAIL structures in planning and coordinating the different services for farmers and farmers’ organizations in the focus districts. Government administration, private service providers and international donors and last, but not least, representatives of producer groups and farmer organizations (cooperatives) are coordinating their different activities. These multiple efforts result in the District Agricultural Services Provision System (DSAPS) and may be extended on provincial (PASPS) and national (NASPS) level. The supported process is the following:

  1. Carry out assessment of organizations working in agriculture sector in HLP focus districts, what they do, how much, where in the district, who they collaborate with, what capacity they have and what they need to improve their capacity.
  2. Hold workshops to provide feedback from the surveys, secure consensus as to desirably for the DASPS and to plan for the development of institutional arrangements to give effect to the coordination and collaboration of agricultural activities in the district.
  3. Hold workshops in the districts to set up structures for effective coordination and collaboration of all organizations and institutions participating in the District Agriculture Service Provision System (DASPS) enabling structure such as the DASPS Assembly (comprising senior representatives of collaborating institutions) and the District Agriculture Coordination and Collaboration Committee (DACCC).
  4. Facilitate the implementation of coordination and collaboration provision in the DASPS Action Plan in each district in line with the seasonal calendar.
  5. Facilitate DASPS report- back workshops where the DACCC reports back to the larger DASPS body of senior representatives of participating organizations and institutions (DASPS Assembly) in each district in line with the seasonal calendar.
  6. Facilitate holding of monitoring and review of DASPS workshops in the district to gauge progress and adjust provisions of the Action Plan as necessary.

In a first stage, this process is going to be developed in the 5 districts where FOD staff is located and able to provide the required support.

Attachments

 

 

 

1.   HLP Integrated Extension Service Model

 

 

2.   TOR for FPs for 1st and 2nd Mobilization Phase

 

Terms of Reference for Facilitating Partners for Group Formation, Social Mobilization and Economic Mobilization of Horticulture and Livestock Producer Groups in the District of xxx, Cluster x, xxx

 

 

Introduction

HLP has been working with smallholder horticulture and livestock producers to increase production and productivity in focus clusters.  The project has also facilitated formation of producer groups.  More recently under the Farmer Organization Development (FOD) component, HLP has worked on an intensive process of group formation, mobilization and training enabling formation and strengthening of 175 male and 107 female producer groups in seven districts.  This process has shown results in terms of building social capital, increasing social cohesion, increased capacity for self help and self management.  This process has also resulted in increased awareness among members about HLP activities and operations.  In some cases this has resulted in increased participation of these members in HLP extension efforts.  Female producer groups have been supported in establishing 170 new orchards.  Some women groups have been facilitated to take up semi intensive poultry production.  The groups have developed some skills of planning and management.  However these groups require more mobilization support and facilitation to participate actively in implementation and management of the extension and technology adoption for horticulture and livestock programs through the network of farmer field schools.  There is also the need to develop intensive models for community management for last mile service delivery including extension services, input supply and management, savings and credit services and marketing services.

Building on the existing efforts at mobilization around self help and self management, HLP is in the process of developing a participatory extension and technology dissemination approach using farmer field schools.  This would involve farmer trainers from every producer group participate in a farmer field school and get trained in key technologies and practices related to the key tree and field crops in case of horticulture and similarly in livestock sector.  These farmer trainers are expected to become farmer extensionists and support experimentation and extension of the recommended practices for the farmers who are members of the producer group in their own fields.  Producer group is expected to take an important role in deepening , management and monitoring of the extension efforts at the group level and ensure that farmer extensionist delivers extension services at the village level.  The producer group is also expected to provide feedback to extension functionaries and the extension workers on the issues faced by the farmers in adoption of practices.  The mobilization effort would lead to increased participation of the members of the producer group in extension and experimentation of the recommended practices and should lead to adoption and adaptation of the improved practices.  This process of mobilization would be undertaken with most groups formed in 11 districts.

The second type of mobilization would be taken up only in selected districts and farmer groups.  This would revolve around service delivery for horticulture and livestock sectors.  This would include to facilitate extension services, input supply and management, savings, credit and financial services and marketing services. This mobilization would involve enabling farmer organizations to develop an integrated one stop service delivery to members leading to lower transaction costs and increased effectiveness. This would involve building linkages with input suppliers like ag-depots, VFUs in case of livestock, district extension services, microfinance agencies, functional cooperatives and other rural finance organizations, traders and other commercial organizations.  This mobilization effort would lead to increased access to good quality inputs and services  at a reasonable cost to the members and also ensure that members get better prices for their produce. This mobilization would include federating the producer groups to achieve economies of scale in delivering services and aggregating demand for services, inputs, credit and commodities. This would enable public and private agencies to provide services to famers in a cost effective way and enable the producer groups to emerge as franchisees for various public and private service providers.

The process of mobilization would be taken up in training and implementation modules with the initial module focusing on self help, self management, savings and financial management. The second module will focus on participatory technology dissemination and extension through farmer field school and farmer extensionists and group management of extension and dissemination. The third module will be taken up in limited locations and will focus on management of service delivery including input supply, credit and marketing services.  Depending on the progress made, these farmer organizations could be federated to achieve economies of scale for service delivery and could develop linkages with district extension system and CDCs/DDAs.  This could also lead to setting up of Farmer Service centers at the federated level.

Objectives of group formation, social mobilization and economic mobilization

  1. To consolidate the work done in setting up of male and female producer groups to enable them to emerge as strong self help and self managed institutions based on quality indicators developed and shared with the members.
  2. To mobilize the male and female producer groups to participate actively in all extension, technology dissemination, activities including the farmer field schools and enable farmer extensionists to deliver services to members leading to high rates of adoption of improved practices according to agreed indicators.
  3. To develop strong self managed community institutions for service delivery enabling better access to  input supply and management, savings, credit and marketing services.
  4. To develop coordination and linkages with public and private service providers e.g. microfinance agencies, ag-depots, VFUs, district and other extension services, NGOs.

Expected tasks of Facilitating Partners

  1. Strengthening Group Cohesion, Building Social Capital
  2. Formation of new groups (development of bye laws,) and strengthening of the existing groups( leadership,grading, auditing, etc).
  3. Monitoring of activities carried through by groups without facilitators.
  4. Monitoring of implementation of group action plans (seasonal calendars).
  5. Training in group processes:
  6.  Principles of peaceful conflict resolution (“do not harm”) and consensual decision making
  7. Information about Services and support needed and offered by HLP
  8. Thematic Micro-planning with focus on horticulture and livestock
  9. Improvement of Management and Planning Capacities of Groups / Farmer Organizations
  10. Training of the key functionaries of the group in planning and group management.
  11. Provide continuous recording and reporting of the realized activities.
  12. Keeping a “minutes of meeting book” for the documentation of activities of each group
  13. Provide monthly reports on the activities realized
  14. Contribute to the evaluation of the activities in form of
    (i) a summary report and
    (ii) sharing of experiences during an evaluation exercise.
  15. Management of the Farmer Field School, Community management of extension and technology experimentation and adoption process
  16. Support the participation of the male and female producer groups in the activities of the farmer field school, both in horticulture and livestock issues, in close cooperation with the HLP technical components (extension service).
  17. Facilitate the linkage between producer groups and veterinary clinics and Veterinary Field Units (VFUs) as well for the provision of animal health services.
  18. Developing a calendar and plan for technology dissemination and extension for the group members.
  19.  Management of the farmer trainer and extensionists in close coordination with the HLP extension service.
  20. Organisation of field days and localised famer field schools within the group using participatory extension methodologies in close coordination with the HLP extension service.
  21. Arranging for farm trials within the group in close coordination with the HLP extension service.
  22. Monitoring of the adoption rates.
  23. Providing feedback to the extension services and the experts.
  24. Input supply management
  25. Training in business abilities and commercialization (input supply, marketing).
  26. Training in administrative and management skills.
  27. Facilitating the linkages with private input providers (e.g. Ag Depots, VFUs).
  28. Facilitating the collective purchase of agricultural inputs at federated level.
  29. Promoting the cooperation between producer groups on village and district levels.
  30. Supporting the creation of registered farmer associations (or cooperatives).
  31. Development of Savings Mobilization , Microcredit and other financial services including “Savings Boxes”
  32. Training in organization, member participation, leadership, financial management and book keeping.
  33. Training in management of savings boxes and internal lending and repayment (eligibility criteria, clear savings norms, minimum amounts, withdrawal rules, appraisal, prioritization, repayment schedules, actions to be taken at every stage of delinquency, internal audits and frequency etc).
  34. Assistance in developing rules and regulations for management of revolving funds, micro-lending procedures, taking into consideration known experiences and best practices.
  35. Developing linkages of producer groups with external agencies including microfinance agencies and other financial service providers.
  36. Provision of marketing services
  37. Support development of marketing plans for various commodities being produced in the orchards through group level collection of data on produce and prices.
  38. Develop and train group functionaries who would specialise in market information access and dissemination to members.
  39. Develop links with traders and other agencies interested in building fair price and trade relationships with groups.
  40. Facilitate aggregation, grading , quality control and local level value addition to get better prices for the produce.
  41. Work on federating the groups to be able to aggregate produce and get market linkages.
  42. Development of the Farmer Service Centres at the Federated level

Methodology

The Farmer Organization Development (FOD) team has developed an outline for forming and strengthening of horticulture and livestock producer groups, which serves as a guideline for carrying through the group formation and mobilization process (“Community Operational Manual for Facilitators”). In a series of ten meetings the groups – male and female – will undergo awareness creation about HLP services (1st phase of 6 months).

In response to the “Request For Proposals”, the Facilitating Partner will develop its methodology and will submit its technical and financial proposal, which will form basis for contract award. The above mentioned objectives have to be interpreted and the respective tasks described in the application proposal, technical and didactical documentation included. The principles of sustainable rural development, active target group participation and equal opportunities of male and female beneficiaries need to be respected (2nd phase for service delivery facilitation).

The activities have to be carried through within the given budget limitations and time frame with the respective 50 producer groups (25 male and 25 female groups). The activities will be implemented in close cooperation with the HLP extension service (meetings of “Farmer Field School”).

 

 

Requested Key Staff and Qualification

  1. Project Director

The Facilitating Partner is assigning a project director who is responsible for the proper implementation of the agreed activities and reporting. The following record of qualification and experience is required:

  • Academic education in social sciences, economy and/or agriculture
  • Experience of at least 5 years in the implementation of social mobilization and rural development projects.
  • Pool of trainers (3 male / 3 female)

For the implementation of the activities, the provision of qualified technical and pedagogical staff is required, considering gender parity. National and local professional staff (native speakers) is given preference.

The following record of qualification and experience and is required:

  • Academic education in the respective fields of work (social sciences, rural economy, agriculture)
  • Prior experience of training and working on participatory extension programs in areas of agriculture, horticulture, livestock sectors.
  • Prior experience of working on economic mobilization of groups including credit, marketing and other livelihood support services.

Deliverables within the contract period

The Facilitating Partner will carry through meetings with each of the respective 50 producer groups, considering a given topic (according to the expected tasks of this TOR). During the meetings, all mentioned aspects will be dealt with in an appropriate manner. The specific issues which the groups are mostly interested in should be taken into consideration. Both these TOR and the time frame as well provide opportunities for focusing those topics.

  1. Submission of inception report after one month of signature of the contract.
  2. Continuous monthly submission of reports (activities, observations, required adjustments) to be submitted to the Project Director of MAIL through the FOD component of HLP.
  3. Delivery of the following information about each producer group in a written form:
  4. General information according to the Producer Group Data Sheet
  5. Analysis of Priority Needs Assessment
  6. Group Action Plan (Seasonal Calendar)
  7. Quarterly updated information for the verification of the following Performance Indicators:
  8. Number of farmer trainers identified from the group;
  9. Number of farmer field schools organized and percentage of group members attending the farmer field school;
  10. Percentage of farmers in the group exposed to the three key technical practices e.g. pruning, etc;
  11. Percentage of farmers in groups adopting recommended practices;
  12. Total amount of savings and savings per group;
  13. Amount of inter-loaning and credit mobilized/Percentage of groups mobilizing credit;
  14. Percentage of groups undertaking collective activities and actions e.g. input procurement, collective marketing;
  15. Contribute to the group formation process (25 male and 25 female producer groups with 25 members each) in close cooperation with the HLP extension service.
  16. Carrying through 500 meetings with male and female producer groups (10 meetings per group during the first 6 months of the assignment according to the HLP outline “Community Operational Manual for Facilitators” (1st phase).
  17. Carrying through 600 meetings with male and female groups (2nd phase: 12 meetings per group).
  18. Delivery of a project completion report at the end of the contract, providing the corresponding information according to the list of Group Performance Indicators.
  19. The organization of a concluding workshop for reporting, presentation of results, observations and recommendations, including a PowerPoint presentation, will be expected.

HLP/FOD will provide the corresponding templates for the required reports.

Timeframe

The activities should be carried through during the period from xxx 2010 until 31st of December 2011.

 

HLP/FOD_16-09-10

ToR_1st+2nd phase

 

 

3.   Job Description of FOD District Project Facilitators

Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock (MAIL)

Horticulture and Livestock Project (HLP)

Farmer Organization Development (FOD)

 

Job Description: District Project Facilitator (male / female)

The Horticulture and Livestock Project (HLP) is the first comprehensive agricultural project, which the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock (MAIL) has implemented since the 1970s. The project is financed by the World Bank, ARTF and DfID, and aims at stimulating marketable output of horticulture and livestock in focus areas by: (i) improving the incentives framework for private investments; and (ii) strengthening institutional capacity in agriculture.

Components of HLP:

HLP has two major components which are horticulture and livestock. The project areas are one Focus District in each of 11 provinces in the north and center of Afghanistan. Rural smallholder farm families join into producer groups for horticultural and livestock products. For both components gender issues are important to be recognized since roles and responsibilities are shared among farm families between men and women.

Farmer Organization Development (FOD)

During the first rounds of HLP’s implementation it became obvious that the two technical components need to be supported and complemented by an additional one which is Farmer Organization Development (FOD). Lessons learnt in HLP and other projects revealed clearly that the lack of capacity, capability and competence of farmers’ groups to lead and manage their own organizations has caused struggles up to the point of total collapse of the groups.

FOD is led by an expatriate specialist and supported by male and female national and regional coordinators in the central office and the regional office in Mazar-e-Sharif as well. Additionally, there are 10 FOD Project Facilitators working for the development of service delivery structures in 5 districts of 5 provinces (1 male and 1 female staff per district). Some of the specific activities (formation, mobilization and training of producer groups) are being implemented by Facilitating Partners. The 5 districts are:

Region                        Province                     Focus District

Central                                    Kabul                           Mir Bacha Kot

Kapisa                         Mahmood Raqi

 

North                           Samangan                  Ayback

                                    Balkh                           Khulm

                                    Jowzjan                       Sheberghan

Tasks of the Project Facilitator:

The ultimate goal of the FOD team is to contribute to HLP's objective to uplift the livelihoods of rural smallholder farm families in an integrated and holistic way. In order to accomplish this objective, the district project facilitator is expected to perform the following tasks:

 

  • Facilitate ongoing activities of group formation, mobilization, and organization of group activities.
  • Develop linkages between the producer groups and the local and district committees for community development (CDCs, DDAs).
  • Develop linkages between the producer groups and the district and provincial administrations (DAIL, PAD).
  • Provide training to producer groups and group leaders in organizational development, and management of common group activities.
  • Facilitate the organization and management of the Farmer Field School (FFS) of male and female producer groups, together with the farmer trainers and the HFP extension workers.
  • Develop linkages between producer groups and
  • AgDepots, Agricultural Cooperatives and private traders for the supply of production inputs
  • Microfinance agencies and banks for the provision of seasonal credit
  • Wholesalers and exporters for improving the conditions of marketing of local horticulture and livestock products
  • Support the creation and functioning of Savings Boxes for mobilizing group-savings and inter-loaning activities
  • Develop linkages between producer groups, HLP-FPs and other service providers, and support the efforts for the establishment of the District Agricultural Services Provision System (DASPS).
  • Facilitate the self-assessment of producer groups, for identifying their needs, and planning and monitoring of group activities.
  • Regular reporting to the regional and national FOD and HLP coordinators.

 

Professional Qualifications and Experience:

  1. BSc degree in the relevant competence areas.
  2. General understanding of Community Development and Farmer Organization Development issues.
  3. At least two years of rural development experience in the relevant development agencies or the public sector.
  4. Perfect Dari and Pashto language and Intermediate English language skills.
  5. Excellent communication skills and social competency.
  6. Other:
  7. Motivated, hardworking, creative and strong team worker.
  8. Willingness to travel and to work in the rural area.
  9. Ability to form professional relations with farmer groups; relevant experience with community groups is an asset.

AD_14 December 2010

 

4.   Job Description of RoP Extension Workers

 

SCOPE OF WORK

 

HORTICULTURE EXTENSION WORKER

 

 

Position:                                   Extension Worker  

Level of Effort:                          12 months renewable

Period of Performance:July 01st, 2010 to October 31st, 2011

Base of Operations:                  Different Provinces where program is implemented

Reports To:                              Directly to Provincial Coordinator    

Work section:                          Horticulture Component – ROP Extension service


I.  Background

 

Perennial crops are a key sub-sector for the development of the economy of the country.   Planting and or rehabilitating orchards impacts on the livelihoods of thousand of rural households.  It increases local fruit production, and generates revenues, and also provides a foundation for local agribusiness development, and supplies environmental benefits.

 

Roots of Peace under the Emergency Horticulture and Livestock Program (HLP) will be implementing an Integrate Extension Service involving the following components:  Horticulture, Livestock and Gender.  This program will run from July 01, 2010 until October 31, 2011.  For this purpose Roots of Peace is seeking for motivated Extension Workers (male and female) interested in working in any of the following provinces: Kabul, Parwan, Kapisa, Panjshir, Baghlan, Kunduz, Takhar, Samangan, Balk, and Sar-e-Pul provinces. 

 

The program will focus on increasing the productive capacity of perennial crops (almond, apricot, grape, pomegranate, as main crops: and apple, plum, peach, and cherry as minor crops); introducing modern orchard management production practices, and profitable crop annual crop-varieties combined with farmers’ organization for input supply and marketing.  The program will design and implement activities with small, medium and large farmers.

 

II. Purpose:

 

The Extension Worker will be responsible for successfully implementing ROP-HLP extension activities in the field; this involves the establishment of new orchards, the re-planting of the old ones and the training of the farmers in the districts where program is implemented.

 

The program is part of a strategy for the dissemination of modern orchard production, post-harvest handling and marketing practices to enable orchard growers to increase productivity, improve quality and reduce market inefficiencies.

 

III. Duties:

 

Establish new orchards, re-planting old ones and/or rehabilitate orchards already established: 

Selection-registration of the farmers to be involved in the program

Distribute the inputs package (saplings, fertilizer and intercropping seed) to the farmers involved in the program

Assist farmers in the establishment of new orchards/vineyards

Collect farmers’ contribution in the field

 

 

 

Technical assistance:

Prepares and delivers training activities following the Farmers Field School (FFS) approach to farmers organized by FOD (Focus districts) and HIG (non Focus districts) on orchard establishment and management, annual crop production, postharvest handling and marketing. 

Follow up the implementation of the HLP/ROP orchard management extension practices recommended.

 

Support to marketing:

Facilitate, in collaboration with HLP team the establishment of market linkages between organized producers, wholesalers and processors.

 

Support the organization of the farmers groups in the field

Coordinates activities with FOD Implementing partners to organize farmers groups at the village level in the district where Ew is working.

 

 

Other

Introduce the program to the local authorities at the village level. 

Provide constant feedback to the Provincial Coordinator about the different issues in the field.

Participate on the training activities organized by HLP/ROP to improve the technical level of the Extension team. 

Provide written reports on accomplishments, needs and plans as required and submits them to the Provincial Coordinator.

All other duties assigned by supervisor

 

IV. Outputs and Deliverables:  

           

Monthly work plan updated every fortnight.

Successful implementation of the monthly work plan

Records of farmers trained, farmers receiving agricultural inputs, number of Ha of new orchards planted and/or rehabilitated in the district under his/her responsibility.

Reports and monitoring data produced as required and in a timely manner

 

 

 

 

 

5.   References Regarding the Mode of Operation of the FOD Component

The mode of operation of FOD and the interaction with the other HLP components is based on by the following documents:

  1. Aide Memoire, Project Restructuring Mission (June 10-30, 2009)
  2. HLP Results Framework 2009 – 2011; as of 18th July 2009
  3. Terms of Reference for Facilitating Partners for Group Formation, Social Mobilization and Economic Mobilization of Horticulture and Livestock Producer Groups, July 2009
  4. Aide Memoire, Supervision Mission (February 22 - March 9, 2010)
  5. HLP Activity Plan for SY 1389-90 [2010-11]; Component 3: Farmer Organization Development (FOD)
  6. The Role of FOD in relation to horticulture and livestock extension activities of HLP, June 2010
  7. Community Operational Manual For Facilitators - Training Modules on Group Formation, Social Mobilization and Economic Mobilization; revised version September 2010
  8. Community Operational Manual For Facilitators II - Training Modules on the Provision of Integrated Services for Horticulture and Livestock Producer Groups (2nd phase), September 2010
  9. Gender Mainstreaming Strategy for the Horticulture and Livestock Project (HLP), January 2010
  10. Environment and Social Safeguards Framework for the Emergency Horticulture and Livestock Project (HLP), October 2009

 

There are about 50 more districts in the 11 provinces where HLP is planting new orchards at individual farms. The FOD group mobilization approach does not apply to these districts.

1 jerib equals 0.2 ha

In the beginning of HLP activities, “lead farmers” according to the “train and visit” approach were appointed and 24 “radial farmers” gathered around each of them. These groups were called “Horticulture Interest Groups” (HIG).

Referring to the training modules see: Community Operational Manual For Facilitators - Training Modules on Group Formation, Social Mobilization and Economic Mobilization; revised version September 2010

Community Operational Manual For Facilitators II - Training Modules on the Provision of Integrated Services for Horticulture and Livestock Producer Groups (2nd phase), September 2010

Situation in April 2011

DASPS activities have been carried through in Mir Bacha Kot (Kabul) as a pilot district, followed by activities in Mahmud Raqi (Kapisa), Ayback (Samangan) and Khulm (Balkh) districts. The PASPS has been developing in Panjshir province at a pilot stage.